If you have ever been confused by what your child meant when they talked about PPA, please see below!




Academies - Academies are independent state-funded schools. Some academies are sponsored and these sponsors can come from a range of backgrounds (businesses, other successful schools, universities, charities and faith bodies). Sponsors are held accountable for improving the performance of their schools.


AfL- Assessment for Learning. Day-to-day assessments which include effective questioning; observations of children during teaching and while they are working; holding discussions with children; analysing work and reporting to children; conducting tests and giving quick feedback. It is based on the idea that pupils will improve most if they understand the aim of their learning, where they are in relation to this aim and how they can achieve the aim (or close the gap in their knowledge).


ASSESSMENT- Finding out about children’s knowledge and abilities in order to best plan their future learning.

ATTAINMENT TARGETS- For each National Curriculum subject there are written statements of what pupils should be taught and be able to do at each level of attainment.




BASELINE ASSESSMENT- Small tasks or tests to determine what children can do on entry


BRITISH VALUES- As part of their SMSC curriculum (see below), schools should promote the fundamental British values of democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty, and mutual respect and tolerance of those with different faiths and beliefs.





CO-OPTED GOVERNOR- A governor appointed by the Governing Body, under 2012 Constitution regulations.




DfE- The Department for Education. It is responsible for education and children's services in England.




EAL- English as an Additional Language. This refers to children whose first language(s) is/are not English and who may not yet be speaking English fluently or even at all.


EHC PLAN- Education, Health and Care Plan. Introduced in September 2014 to replace Statements of Educational Needs (see below). EHC plans are for children and young people who have a special educational need or disability that cannot be met by support that is usually available in a school or college.


ELGs- Early Learning Goals. These set out the learning and development skills most children should have achieved by the end of the school Reception year.


ESOL- English for Speakers of Other Languages or English as a Second or Other Language. If English is not your main language you can take part in a course to help you improve your English. These courses are called ESOL.


EXCLUSION - A child may be excluded from school by the head teacher if they act in a way that prevents the teaching and learning of the school community.


EYFS- Early Years Foundation Stage. A framework for care and education of children from birth to five years of age.




FSM- Free School Meals. Children whose parents are on certain benefits will qualify for free school meals. Applications are made to the Local Authority. It is also used as a marker of which pupils bring extra funding for the school (pupil premium - see below) and to help monitor how well these children perform academically, so it is important beyond just identifying who will receive free lunches.

All children in the EYFS Reception Class and KS1 are entitled to receive a funded lunch, regardless of their parents' financial circumstances.




GOVERNOR/GOVERNING BODY- In state schools, governors have responsibility for raising school standards through their three key roles of setting strategic direction, ensuring accountability and monitoring and evaluating school performance. The Governing Body holds the Headteacher to account for the overall success of the school and works in the capacity of a ‘critical friend’ of the school – supporting the school to be the best that it can.




HLTA- Higher Level Teaching Assistant. An HLTA is further qualified to support the class teacher in undertaking specific roles such as teaching the whole class during PPA time or delivering whole class areas of learning.




INCLUSION - A process by which schools, local authorities and other develop their cultures, policies and practices to include all pupils.


INSET- In-Service Education and Training. All schools in England have five days every year when they are closed to pupils to allow for staff training. They are an important part of staff training and development, ensuring that staff stay up to date with the latest developments in education. Schools can choose when they hold these, so dates vary.



KS1- Key Stage 1. Pupils in Year One and Year Two, aged 5-7 years old.


KS2- Key Stage 2. Pupils in Year Three, Year Four, Year Five and Year Six, aged 7-11 years old.




LA or LEA- Local Authority or Local Education Authority.


LEA GOVERNOR- A person appointed as a governor by the Local Education Authority.




MFL - Modern Foreign Languages. The learning of a modern foreign language became compulsory in primary schools in 2014. At Cliffedale School the children learn French.


MLD- Moderate Learning Difficulties.




NATIONAL CURRICULUM- A framework which sets out what pupils should be learning. Teachers plan and deliver lessons based on the National Curriculum. It provides a broad and balanced education for all children, covering 12 subjects overall, and is divided into four key stages according to age. It includes statutory assessments, consisting of tests and teacher assessments, at the end of Key Stages 1 and 2 and teacher assessments at the end of Key Stage 3.


NON-TEACHING STAFF- Members of school staff employed to provide services in a school other than teaching, such as teaching assistants, cleaners and school secretaries.


NQT- Newly Qualified Teacher.




OFSTED- The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills is an independent organisation, which reports directly to Parliament. Ofsted inspects and regulates services, which care for children and young people and those providing education and skills for learners of all ages.




PAN- Published Admission Number. The fixed number of children which a school must admit if sufficient applications are received, as published by the admission authority for the school.


PARENT GOVERNOR- A parent elected by other parents of children at a school to serve on the Governing Body.


PE and SPORT PREMIUM- Funding given which is designed to help primary schools improve the quality of the Physical Education and sport activities they offer their pupils.


PPA- Planning, Preparation and Assessment Time. This is a statutory 10% (per week) non-contact time for teaching staff to enable planning, assessment and preparation. In practice, typically this means the class teacher in a primary school will not teach in the classroom for half a day a week and a supply teacher or another member of staff will take over with the children.


PRU- Pupil Referral Unit (or Pupil Re-integration Unit in some Local Education Authorities). This is an establishment maintained by a Local Authority which is specifically organised to provide education for children who are excluded, sick, or otherwise unable to attend a mainstream or special maintained school.


PSHE- Personal, Social, Health and Economic Education. It is a planned programme of learning through which children and young people acquire the knowledge, understanding and skills they need to manage their lives, now and in the future. The benefits to pupils of such an approach are numerous as PSHE prepares them to manage many of the most critical opportunities, challenges and responsibilities they will face growing up in such rapidly changing and challenging times. It also helps them to connect and apply the knowledge and understanding they learn in all subjects to practical, real-life situations while helping them to feel safe and secure enough to fulfill their academic potential.


PUPIL PREMIUM - Additional funding given to schools for children who are from disadvantaged homes (as defined by their eligibility for free school meals at any time in the last six years - see above). It also applies to those who are or have been in Local Authority care or who have a parent in the armed forces. The aim of this funding is to ensure that these pupils benefit from the same opportunities as all other children.




QTS - Qualified Teacher Status.




RE- Religious Education; the teaching of faiths and beliefs. Teaching focusses on Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.




SALT - Speech and Language Therapist. The roll and aim of which is to enable young adults and children with speech, language and communication difficulties to reach their maximum communication potential and achieve independence in all aspects of life.


SATs- Standard Attainment Tests/Tasks. National Curriculum Tests and Tasks which take place at the end of Key Stage 1 and at the end of Key Stage 2.


SEND- Special Educational Needs and Disability. The Code of Practice 2014 states ‘A child has SEND where their learning difficulty or disability calls for special educational provision, that is provision different from or additional to that normally available to pupils of the same age. Provision to support pupils who experience difficulties with their learning.' In the majority of instances, these are undertaken in school under the guidance of the SENCo (Special Educational Needs Coordinator). Outside agencies may become involved if the school and/or parents feel is will be of benefit to the child.


SENCo - Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator.


SDP- School Development Plan. This is a projection of what a school hopes to achieve within a prescribed time limit. It includes all areas of school life from the curriculum to the school building and environment.


SLT- Senior Leadership Team. This consists of the Headteacher, Deputy/ and possibly other senior members of staff


SMSC- Spiritual, moral, social and cultural development. All schools in England must show how well their pupils develop in SMSC.


STAFF GOVERNOR- Teacher or person working at the school who is elected as a governor by people who are paid to work at the school.




TARGET - The individual goals set for a child. Targets are a way of checking a child’s progress.


TEACHER ASSESMENT- The teachers’ judgement about what national curriculum level a child is attaining. This judgement will be made based on evidence gathered over a period of time and from a range of pieces of work, together with test results. It is usually a more reliable judgement of a child’s attainment than a test result alone.


TA- Teaching Assistant. The main role of a TA is to support learning alongside a teacher. They may work with small groups of children or individuals to best help learning. TAs may also lead curriculum support programmes designed to help children. Sometimes a child with special educational needs will be assigned an individual TA to help them.




UNAUTHORISED ABSENCE- This occurs when the school has not given permission for the absence of a pupil. Where the reason for it cannot be established at registration, the absence shall be recorded as unauthorised.




VALUE ADDED - This is the progress that schools help pupils make relative to their individual starting points.




YEAR 1 PHONICS SCREENING CHECK - This is designed to give teachers and parents information on how children are progressing in phonics. It helps to identify whether a child needs additional support at this stage so that they do not fall behind in this vital early reading skill.